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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Cristiano Ronaldo, the superstar footballer who earned 61 million pound last year, usurped long-term leader Floyd Mayweather Jnr into first place. The retired boxer, who fought just once in the last 12 months, earned pound 30 million.

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去年电影市场的一个亮点是,共有七部高质量的国产影片在票房前10名的榜单中。其中就包括真人与动画结合的《捉妖记》、以及基于经典古代故事的3D动画电影《大圣归来》。
安娜上班的地方位于富人区的一家购物中心的车库,她抱怨道:“我去上班的路上要多花费一小时,但我却得不到一个现场看球的机会。“
People (read: your boss) will notice if you go from sporting a uniform of jeans and a T-shirt to showing up in a tailored suit on interview day. This is all the more reason to take the day off from work to interview, but if you don't, dress as usual at the office. And then, Foss says, "leave the premises, and stop in a McDonald's parking lot on the way to the interview to change."

That comes in spite of official figures released on Tuesday showing China’s exports had contracted for a second straight month in October, suggesting domestic demand is the main driver of price gains for producers.
在这月初这封信上写着的地址是宾夕法尼亚大学的某个邮箱。
['elim?nt]

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

央行“双降”后 二手房房贷咨询量不升反跌

举例来说,新浪微博就一直提供推特所不具备的一些功能,尤其是评论功能,让众多用户得以在别人发表的微博下发表自己的见解。拥有逾7亿用户的腾讯QQ即时信息服务也有众多附加功能,比如可以让用户改换形象的“皮肤”,同时QQ还是腾讯为其他产品和服务做广告的渠道。新浪拒绝置评。
“Insead enormously boosted our intercultural experience,” said one alumni survey respondent from Switzerland. “It is a place to learn global culture better than anywhere else.”
许多技术人员相信,本世纪的智能机器人很有可能和人类进行比赛,并取得胜利。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

赛瑞戴维森
卓越雇主排名:25
上月,在全国70个大中城市中,新建商品住宅价格环比上涨的有55个,价格持平的有4个,价格下跌的有11个。环比下跌的城市包括深圳(下跌0.3%)、杭州(下跌0.4%)和厦门(下跌0.2%)。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • adj. 确实的,保障的,有自信的 动词assure的过
  • 合肥出台新规 小区车位不得向非业主出售
  • 我倒是并不担心费城、凤凰城和明尼苏达的球队。他们队伍都很年轻,都在重建的路上。如果他们能够取得进步,那很好,就算没有,他们也能获得高顺位的选秀权。而篮网队则是另一个故事了,我们稍后会讨论到他们。
  • 资源整合成家居行业年度关键词
  • 整木定制家居成市场新宠 “痛点”多多 亟待消除
  • Spielman was sifting through dirt at the Emek Tzurim national park on the slopes of the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem when she noticed the small rectangular object.
    China becomes the first middle-income country to join the ranks of the world's 25 most-innovative economies, according to the Global Innovation Index (GII) released last Monday.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the LED混战“逼退”业内巨头 创新产品或成行业出口, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

北京首部家具经营服务规范发布 行业约束再深入

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

全部冲破限价 南京将全面进入“现房销售”时代

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Wang, the chairman of Dalian Wanda Group, took the top spot with a personal fortune of $32.1 billion, the report said, despite Ma seeing his wealth surge 41 percent from 2015.
    此外,华为在2016年最后一季度第一次实现了2位数的全球市场占有率。
  • 积极稳妥去杠杆。
    It was also the "most liked" tweet of the year, with 4.59 million likes.
    一家非官方机构出具的中国制造业衡量指标在11月下降,表明国有企业的业务增长并未扩展到规模较小和私营的工厂。
    4. Jennifer Aniston - $21 million
    n. 飞机,水平

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 建筑节能需求旺盛 具有广阔市场前景
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 住建部严控建材质量

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

柯特妮韦弗(Courtney Weaver)
stylish
"Poverty has stunted further growth in Internet users, which has kept the Net user population to around 50 percent," Li said.
但“平均”讲的是以前的情况,不是未来的事实。乐观言论不会让牛市重启,新的警告声音也不会刺破旧的泡沫。周期有自己的生命,该上行的时候上行,该下行的时候下行。这是很自然的事情。
在全球最具价值品牌百强榜上,有15个中国品牌上榜,比去年多一个,较10年前大有增加,当时中国移动(China Mobile)是唯一上榜的中国品牌。
haven
单词accomplished 联想记忆:

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • entertainment
  • 甘肃省建材工业学校增设混凝土与水泥制品等专业
  • 无论是左翼还是右翼,他们都标榜自己是反精英的大众代表和不合适的局外人,并作为魅力领导人与追随者密切联系,他们往往通过弥天大谎来操纵这种联系,用以谋求自己的进步;他们威胁既有的行为准则和约束性制度,把这些准则和制度描述为他们所代表的民意的敌人。
    然而专家却在西方当前的乱象之下看到一种白人身份危机。
  • 佛山市成立首个情调照明联盟
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • "Martial arts are highlighted in the TV series. The actors performed real kung fu," a Douban user Weishenmeyaoxuefa said.
    May the season\'s joy fill you all the year round.
  • stressful
    2010年标准普尔500指数年终收盘报:1300点。
  • Transforming and upgrading the real economy through innovation
    “这可能影响他们一生。”
  • But, despite the incessant warnings from security researchers, many people are still turning to weak, easily guessable passwords to protect their devices.
    The theory that exercise boosts your intelligence might have some basis in fact according to a study conducted at Georgia Tech. Even if you don't like lifting weights, and the inside of a gym makes you want to run for the nearest doughnut shop, it might take just 20 minutes to enhance your memory, according to the 2014 study. Researchers asked participants to work out for 20 minutes in an intense manner and found that just 20 minutes of activity could help improve "episodic memory" by as much as 10% in young adults.
    n. 版权,著作权
  • 这一次,湖人队处境不错,而且不需要赶着去做什么事,给他们点时间,看看他们到底会怎样。用这样的防守质量他们很难进入季后赛,但是这并不是这个赛季的重点。
    Structural challenges in the market, which is dominated by large property developers, have generally acted as disincentives to large European and US asset managers.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 新规范给红木家具销售带上“紧箍咒” shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

香港房价连续17周创新高 成交量大幅回落

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

楼市利好政策显效?18城房价回升北上广深领涨

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

养老金15连涨值得期待!多地上调窗口将开启

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

三亚实行商品房网签新规:当月销售当月网签 逾期不再办理

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 《老友记》大部分剧集拍摄之时,手机和Google都还未普及,剧中的服装和道具现在看来也有些过时,但是,剧中的主题却依旧深得现在年轻观众的心。
  • But her success doesn't come cheap and her mother has already spent £5,000 on elaborate dresses and entry fees.
  • 东海利用大数据改革办证流程 二手房交易一小时内领证

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Length of program: 24 months
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 4.Avoid micromanaging
    Americans: While you're here, why not pretend to be Canadian? Very few Britons can tell the difference, and it will allow you to rescue yourself from awkward conversations about the death penalty.
    “我去的每一个地方,都发现企业主对未来的需求量有一个很好的预期,” Gus Faucher PNC金融服务机构的资深经济学家称。“商人必须提高薪酬来吸引更多的劳动力或者保留原有的工人”。
  • 7、Bad body language habits

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • ['li:kid?]
  • 深圳新房均价连续15个月 约为5.5万元/平米
  • 根据迪拜政府的最新预测,在迪拜旅游的游客今年将消费313亿美元,远远超过伦敦游客消费的198亿美元。伦敦在游客消费榜单中排名第二。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 区块链江湖乱象:“中国大妈”嵌入微商模式
  • Household substance abuse
  • 社科院预测明年楼市或调整 房企仍然持续买地
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

发改委指导意见:放开放宽除个别超大城市外的城市落户限制

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 若投资一套房要100年回本 你还会炒吗?
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 石材行业洗牌 人造石降成本
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

arrogant

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

1.哥吃的不是面,是寂寞。
Yes. Mr Meade is the candidate of the ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party, or PRI. His main rival is the hard leftist Andrés Manuel López Obrador, a passionate orator who can work a crowd. Mr Meade has a lot to overcome: he will have to convince voters that they can trust him, after he put up petrol prices by 20 per cent overnight in January, triggering a surge in inflation. He will also have to reveal himself as his own man, not just a clone of an unpopular government that has failed spectacularly to rein in rampant corruption and crime. But backed by the formidable PRI get-out-the-vote machine, he could prove unstoppable. In Mexico’s one-round-only system, 30 per cent of the vote might be enough.
The history of James Bond theme songs isn't quite as long as some might suspect, however. The first two films in the series – Dr. No and From Russia With Love – didn't have opening songs, they had orchestral arrangements. Dr. No even segued into a weird rendition of "Three Blind Mice." Later on, On Her Majesty's Secret Service gave the opening number amiss and snuck its theme song into the middle and end of the movie.
杨燕绥说道,为确保该计划顺利进行,中央政府必须夯实统筹基础养老金,做大职业年金,管好个人账户。
据中国新闻报道,在2011此墓主人被认定为刘非(公元前169-127),汉朝诸侯国江都第一任国君。
补救办法:当我们在做出重大决定时,例如接受(或拒绝)工作邀请时,我们往往会受到信息性偏见的影响。如果我们认为自己做出了正确的选择,就首先会想到那些支持这种想法的信息。但如果我们担心自己犯了错误,我们的潜意识就会增强这种直觉。在做出工作的决定时,如果你习惯性地怀疑自己的能力,这个问题不在于你以前所做的职业选择是否正确,而在于你需要建立自信,相信自己有能力选择让自己满意的职业,并对结果有一定的把握。若要解决这个问题,需要回忆你在做出这个选择时所处的环境和当时你所优先考虑的因素,然后看看现在所处的环境和优先考虑的因素是否发生了变化。此外还要与职业顾问合作,理清工作决策,帮助你增强进入新领域的信心、承担风险和谈判的能力。
美因何而存在?为了回答这个问题,鸟类学家理查德?O?普鲁姆正试图令达尔文的一种观点重新流行:同一个物种中,动物对其同类的吸引力,不仅仅与健康和良好的基因有关。动物,尤其是普鲁姆博士所研究的鸟类,会做出主观的决定。他希望进化生物学家不要再“为欲望辩解”了。
On the subject of #MeToo, she said: 'I just think they're douche bags. They're not champions. I just think they're losers. I don't like them.
No. Football punditry is a mug’s game. Better to have the benefit of hindsight. There have been 20 previous World Cups. Of those, Brazil (five titles) and Germany (four), are regular contenders. Home advantage helps, with host nations winning the trophy six times. But next year’s festival of football is being held in Russia, which has the lowest-ranked team in the tournament.
May the beauty and joy of New Year remain with you throughout the new year!愿新春美景与欢乐常伴随你!

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

继拍卖房产、公车后 淘宝网上又开卖“坏账”

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 但是美国加州公务员退休基金(Calpers)的高级投资组合经理兼全球治理主管安妮?辛普森(Anne Simpson)却相信,库克的道德立场不仅仅是种姿态。她说:“他对作秀技巧的漠视自有其魅力。蒂姆?库克将苹果这种优雅和卓越的理念应用到这些新的领域。”加州公务员退休基金是苹果的重要股东。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • If you think Kevin Durant is scrawny now, just take a look at his tiny physique back when he played at Montrose Christian.
  • 机构:上半年一线城市新房热度下行 西安、重庆等中西部城市上升
  • Enrollment: 503
  • 成品房时代来临 建材家装企业如何应对?
  • 《患难与共》(Togetherness),HBO,1月11日播出。HBO台的周日晚间喜剧组合中已经有了20出头的纽约女人(《都市女孩》[Girls]第四季第一集将在同一天晚上播出),还有快到30岁的旧金山男同性恋(《寻》[Looking]也在当天开播第二季)。现在又来了30多岁的洛杉矶异性恋者们。这部有点阴郁的半小时喜剧来自杰伊(Jay)和马克·杜普拉斯(Mark Duplass),兄弟俩曾经合拍过《肥大的椅子》(The Puffy Chair)和《纸袋头》(Baghead)等诡异的电影。马克·杜普拉斯和梅兰妮·林斯基(Melanie Lynskey)饰演一对夫妻,和杜普拉斯最好的朋友(史蒂夫·齐西斯[Steve Zissis]饰演)与林斯基的姊妹(阿曼达·皮特[Amanda Peet]饰)合住一栋房子。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 佛山照明再判赔超2700万元 累计金额超1亿元
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • As we get closer to relegating 2014 to the history books, your local stock market guru most likely couldn’t be happier to see those books slammed shut.
  • Technology

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

住宅均价4月环比涨1.45% 北上广深涨幅未进前十

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