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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

一封投递给美国某位大学生的、来自于其曾经的未婚妻的情书现在终于上路了,虽然这封情书写于1958年,整整迟了53年。

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科技巨头腾讯创始人马化腾凭借2790亿元的身家位居榜首,阿里巴巴的马云和恒大集团的许家印紧随其后,其个人财富分别为2600亿元和2290亿元。
Stock pickers encountered difficulty this year in part because of concentration at the top of the market. Just five stocks—Apple, Berkshire Hathaway, Johnson & Johnson, Microsoft, and Intel— accounted for 20% of the market’s gains. If you weren’t at least equally weighted toward them, you had virtually no shot at making up for missing their enormous, index-driving gains. A majority of the market’s stocks did not perform nearly as well. According to the Leuthold Group, only 30% of S&P 1500 stocks posted gains exceeding the index itself. You’d have to go back to 1999 to see anything like this.
“我亲眼见到一个女人死了,并且我看到美国总统拒绝明确谴责杀害她的人。”

《请以你的名字呼唤我》背景设定在意大利,讲述了的一个少年和一个学者之间的柔情之恋。
凡是这家汽车服务公司的忠实员工在效力满10年后,都可获得一份奖励:在佛罗里达州波卡拉顿的一处度假胜地欢度周末(此地距该公司总部仅15分钟车程)。这项福利此后每5年都可以享受一次。
什么温度的葡萄酒最好喝(图)

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

多机构预测4月新增信贷1.1万亿

The advantages for schools seem clear: they enjoy the benefits of bright graduates who would otherwise have gone straight into consulting.
Don't mistake the lack of a late flurry for an uneventful deadline:
“我首要的使命、首要的责任是忠实于这本书的原始感觉,忠实于伊恩·弗莱明:他的作品、他的世界和他的构想。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

The other issue with tanking is Philly, Phoenix, and Brooklyn are all bad teams. It's going to be hard to outflank those outfits.
The fall in profits in December highlights the challenges facing an industrial sector racked by overcapacity and falling prices, adding to pressure on authorities to loosen monetary policy and boost infrastructure spending to cushion the slowdown.
adj. 全国流行的 n. (全国或全世界范围流行的)疾

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • I give you endless brand-new good wishes. Please accept them as a new remembrance of our lasting friendship.
  • 中央经济工作会议:高起点、高质量编制好雄安新区规划
  • 昨日,108名表演者身着熊猫服装,穿行在伦敦的街头,向大众宣传这种惹人喜爱却面临灭绝危险的黑白物种。
  • 马骏:500亿美元贸易战对中国经济影响有限 已基本被市场消化
  • 全国土地市场进入量价调整“磨合期”
  • The reason is twofold: For one, logistically, there are simply too many opportunities to get caught job searching. Résumé copies will be found. Computer servers will be checked. Co-workers will notice when you're clearly elsewhere, either literally for interviews or emotionally (more on that later)。
    英国气象办公室哈德莱中心(UK Met Office's Hadley Centre)气候监测与分析的负责人彼得斯托特(Peter Stott)表示,人为造成的气候变化是升温的罪魁祸首,导致世界进入“未知领域”。哈德莱中心发布的研究报告也印证了美国研究人员的分析结果。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 北京城市副中心将提高政策性住房比例, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

大规模减税降费为粤港澳大湾区建设添活力

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

2016年智慧家庭安全市场将迎来爆发

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 1.《刺客聂隐娘》(The Assassin)与《疯狂的麦克斯4:狂暴之路》(Mad Max: Fury Road),并列。侯孝贤和乔治·米勒(George Miller)导演了今年最好的两部商业片,二者都应该到你能找到的最大的屏幕上去看。
    Until now, the appeal of Bigcommerce’s eponymous technology has been simplicity and its ability to scale along with merchants as they grow. “To some, this will mean the difference between success and failure,” said Steve Case, who as a board member advises Bigcommerce on U.S. entrepreneurial trends. “Even just five years ago, if you wanted to create a compelling offering, it could cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Now, you can get up and running in hours for less than $100 per month.”
  • 巴韦贾对全球化不断变化的性质的深度分析显示,全球贸易增长疲软背后的主要因素是投资减速。全球贸易增速曾在很长一段时间内是全球GDP增速的两倍。
    The worst of 2015
    教育部在一场新闻发布会上表示,全球大多数的留学生都是来自中国。
    研究集团龙洲经讯(Gavekal Dragonomics)的陈龙表示,如今分析师们认为,中国银行业的盈利性增长机会差不多用完了。
    不会。当然,这种情况可能发生,但是只要运气不是太差,梅眼下至少可以确保英国经济不会在2019年因掉落“无协议”悬崖而急剧下滑。2017年12月,“共识预测”(Consensus Forecasts)预测2018年英国将增长1.5%。该机构对日本和意大利的预测值更低,为1.3%。因此英国明年成为G7中经济增长最慢国家的几率应该在四分之一左右。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 中关村分园部分项目可获40%房租补贴
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 多地人才争夺提前“开战”

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

IE’s alumni have the second-highest average salary increase following graduation, at 39 per cent. The school is ranked first for aims achieved and for international mobility. It is third for career progress. “There is a definite ‘before and after’ for career progression,” says one former student. “Post-MBA I felt I had more of a sense of direction not only of where I wanted to be, but also why, and how to make it happen.”
他进一步补充到,“有大约70名法国公民为恐怖分子当兵战死在叙利亚和伊拉克。”
报道称,代理商和投资机构正纷纷涌入该行业,对世界上第二大经济体的平台造成了额外改变。
'A little bit in shock,' said director Steve McQueen, before shrugging 'Roll, Jordan, roll'-the lyrics to the old gospel song sung in the slavery epic.
Shanghai is the most popular destination for new job seekers, followed by Shenzhen, Guangzhou and Beijing. Provincial capitals cities in central and western regions are also among the top choices for the new graduates.
reform
The new figures come as Mr Duterte fends off criticism at home and abroad over his anti-drugs campaign, which has seen 600,000 potential suspects voluntarily turn themselves in to authorities.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 胡润研究院称,只有资本净值超过80亿元的女性才有资格入围中国女富豪榜前50名。
  • 河北钢铁日减产820万吨
  • Every point we think we've reached where James cannot be better than he has been, he then blows past it like a poor center switched onto him. What will be discussed most is his all-encompassing skill, but this is also a testament to the work that James puts in. You can mock all those Instagram videos he puts up, but those are the real reason he's still able to do this; James has never cheated the game, not a day in his life, and the result is incomparable performance night in and night out.
    单词popular 联想记忆:
  • 上海家居用品市场正在回暖
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Also important to EMBA entrepreneurs was the support of their school and alumni network. About three-quarters of entrepreneurs thought that both the school and their alumni network were helpful or very helpful when setting up their company. “Alumni support was key to getting the idea vetted and getting the right contacts needed for the business”, said one.
    非常感谢Aicha Nezzar在脸谱—--世界英语论坛上为我们分享这篇佳作。
  • 俄罗斯的SKN公司将老旧俄国弹药制作成钻石。这就是回收利用!
    但是,这些进展也指向美国和欧盟在利用此类案件上的巨大差异,欧盟目前正在讨论是否要赋予中国世界贸易组织(WTO)框架下的“市场经济”地位——这一让步会使对中国提起反倾销案变难。
  • 另一名来自美国的毕业生写道,来自世界各地的知识的丰富性和深度为课程带来了巨大的价值,他补充称,“鉴于这里汇聚着众多的文化和经验,有关贿赂的课堂道德讨论不像典型的美国学校那样枯燥。”
    According to historical accounts, Richard's body was transported naked and bloody on the back of a pack horse to Leicester before being buried in an unmarked grave at Greyfriars, a Franciscan friary in the central English city.
  • Here are the news events that the search engine Baidu says most captured Internet users' attention in 2015:
    《纸牌屋》(House of Cards),Netflix,2月27日播出。Netflix的政治大戏,第三季有13集。除凯文·斯派西(Kevin Spacey)与罗宾·怀特(Robin Wright)外,曾出演《忧愁河上桥》(Treme)的基姆·迪金斯(Kim Dickens)亦加盟该剧,“Pussy Riot”的两位成员亦有客座出演。
    n. 同伴,伙伴,合伙人
  • 在2007年,苹果公司发布了第一款iPhone手机:带有虚拟键盘的全触屏手机。对很多人来说,苹果取得了新突破,发明了新事物--他们制造了第一款触屏手机。但这种说法是错误的:苹果不是第一个制造触屏手机的公司,触屏也不是什么新发明。
    二、2017年工作总体部署
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 告别“激进” 房企低调控风险 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

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Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

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Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

中小型卫浴企业如何制定营销战略

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

家居电商冰火两重天

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Sohmers表示:“我曾经先后三次申请加入麻省理工学院研究室。我第一次申请的时候是14岁,那时我的父母并不太支持我。但是后来他们发现我在高中里学习并不快乐。于是他们开始慢慢理解了我的想法。现在他们对我的工作非常支持。”在加入麻省理工学院研究室之后,Sohmers终于找到了属于自己的天地。如今已经17岁的Sohmers表示,自己并不后悔放弃学业,进行创业。他表示:“即使我无法改变世界,也会收获一些其他的东西。人们在讨论上学和创业的时候,总是顾虑太多。但是企业是在研究者眼中,你的学历高低并不重要,重要的是你的能力。”
  • 最佳喜剧类导演:吉尔?苏洛威(Jill Soloway),《透明家庭》,“地上的人” (Transparent, "Man on the Land")
  • 财政部长人民日报撰文:个人住房按评估值征房产税

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • They must understand in their bones that it is illegitimate to make temporary power permanent by rigging elections, suppressing contrary opinions or harassing the opposition.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 激情、毅力和积极的心态,是创业成功的关键。培养这些特质要有天赋和一些小技巧。
    The second chart shows the real federal funds rate (ie discounting for inflation) and the real natural rate. Again, when the federal funds rate is above its natural rate, EM crises are more common.
    排在榜单第三位的是31岁的克丽茜·泰根,她在过去的12个月里赚得1350万美金,首次跻身榜单。
  • 3. Elasticity of Demand.The cure for low prices is low prices. That cliché can be applied to both the supply and demand side of the equation. Will oil selling at fire sale prices spur renewed demand? In some countries where oil is more regulated, low prices may not trickle down to the retail level. Countries like Indonesia are scrapping subsidies, which will be a boon to state coffers but will diminish the benefits to consumers. However, in the U.S., gasoline prices are now below $2.40 per gallon, more than 35 percent down from mid-2014. That has led to an uptick in gasoline consumption. In the waning days of 2014, the U.S. consumed gasoline at the highest daily rate since 2007. Low prices could spark higher demand, which in turn could send oil prices back up.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Bigger isn’t always better.
  • 习近平:在庆祝改革开放40周年大会上的讲话
  • “我们现在从中国看到的情况不仅仅是巴西一国的现象,我们在整个拉美都看到了同样的情况,中国对所有市场的出口都在下降,”负责马士基航运在巴西、巴拉圭、乌拉圭和阿根廷业务的执行董事安东尼奥?多明格斯(Antonio Dominguez)表示,“已经连续几个季度出现这种情况,但随着我们进入(2016)年,这种局面变得越来越明显了。”

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 房地产三年周期变两年 小年行情明年提前上演?
  • Household substance abuse
  • 质检新规出台,规范木门行业健康发展
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

地王周边项目房价涨幅10% 所有人都在从楼市赚钱

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 北京最严家具排污标准:不换水性涂料就退出市场
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 业内称今年楼市政策基调松 难期待出现大放水
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

But there's even more to be excited about: Magic Johnson is a well-connected and well-respected Hall of Famer who seems smart enough to delegate, new GM Rob Pelinka is a proven deal-maker with extensive ties throughout the league,

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

自2003年以来,上海软科教育信息咨询有限公司就根据第三方的数据,开始发布全球500强高校榜单。
日前,斯坦福大学商学院(Stanford Graduate School of Business)教授彼得o库迪斯基于这场荷兰危机共同撰写了一篇文章,围绕“个人经验(而非市场信息)决定乐观、悲观以及信贷的获得与否”这种不那么科学的方法给出了现代经验。
“老实说,我真的不担心。”科比说,“我的投篮会变好的。”
《蜘蛛侠:英雄归来》
So take a look. I sincerely hope you enjoy reading them as much as I liked selecting and editing them.
如果你很卖命的工作并且给公司创造了价值,你本应该得到酬谢。如果你的老板在两年之内没有给你涨薪水,去申请吧。如果老板不同意,还考虑什么,走吧。
这是连续第二个周末,委内瑞拉的社会主义政府开放与哥伦比亚长期封闭的边界,星期日上午6点,潜在的顾客们排成长蛇阵,穿过圣安东尼奥德尔塔奇拉整个小镇。有些人租了车,从10小时车程外的城市赶来。
IFAD称,汇款总额在2017年有望达到4500亿美元,在过去十年里,这个数字增长了超过50%。
2015年FT/麦肯锡最佳商业图书奖(2015 Financial Times and McKinsey Business Book of the Year)的获奖作品是《机器人的崛起:大规模失业的威胁与科技》(The Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of Mass Unemployment),这本书对工作自动化的未来做出了令人不安和常常令人消沉的分析。
下面是2014年的几部重现活力、需要刮目相看的老剧——以及几部死气沉沉的老剧。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

武汉首创应届生申请大学生租赁房

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 现任美国主席奥巴马的内阁共有7名女性,17名男性,克林顿曾是其中一员。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 4. “Heart of a Dog”(Laurie Anderson)
  • 儿童家具市场步入成熟期 实木家具成新宠
  • Aoki-san is a pleasure to work withon storyboard. With Aoki-san on the team it feels like a sure thing. The visionof these animations will be perfect.
  • 北京首部家具经营服务规范发布 行业约束再深入
  • adolescent

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 中国房地产企业密集“出海” 竟是这个原因
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • pne以前+vi路[引申为走]+ous→以前走过的→以前的
  • On Turkey, which recently shot down a Russian warplane, Putin said he sees no possibility of overcoming the strained ties with the current Turkish leadership. He said he was shocked to see that Turkey hadn't tried to explain its action but turned to help from NATO instead.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

2万元“买”一套房 上海旧住房改造送来大礼包

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